中华人民共和国福建海事局
当前位置:中华人民共和国福建海事局 > 上级规范性文件
中华人民共和国海事局关于印发《中国沿海防范商渔船碰撞事故指引(2023版)》的通知
中华人民共和国福建海事局     发布时间:2023-11-01 17:11     生成时间:2023-11-01    索引号:FJMSA-0105-2023-00136

中远海运集团、招商局集团、中交建设集团,中国航海学会、中国船东协会、中国无船承运人及代理协会、中国水上交通安全协会,各省、自治区、直辖市交通运输厅(局、委),各直属海事局:

为防范化解商渔船碰撞风险,引导广大航运企业、沿海航行船舶及船员更好落实水上交通安全主体责任,进一步强化商渔船防碰撞工作,现将《中国沿海防范商渔船碰撞事故指引(2023版)》印发给你们,请结合实际做好宣传推广和使用工作。

中华人民共和国海事局

2023年9月22日

(此件公开发布)

中国沿海防范商渔船碰撞事故指引

GUIDELINE FOR THE PREVENTION OF COLLISION BETWEEN MERCHANT VESSELS AND FISHING VESSELS IN COASTAL WATERS OF CHINA

本指引参考《1972年国际海上避碰规则》和中国沿海商渔船航行实际,结合航运公司、行业协会、海事院校的实践经验,坚持“安全第一、预防为主”的原则,对在中国沿海航行商船优化航行方法,规范避让行动和应急救助等提出建议,旨在为船舶预防碰撞事故提供指导,提升商渔船碰撞风险防控能力。

guideline offers recommendations to optimize navigation techniques, regulate action to avoid collision, and address emergency rescue measures for merchant vesselsnavigating in the coastal waters of China. Its objective is to provide guidance on collision prevention and to improve the collision risk control capabilities of both merchant and fishing vessels. This guideline incorporates the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea 1972, as well as the navigation and fishing practices specific to the coastal waters of China. It also takes into account the practical experiences of shipping companies, industry associations and maritime institutions. Following the principle of Prioritizing Safety and Emphasizing Prevention, this

一、航行方法

1. Navigation Techniques

目的港为中国沿海港口或航经中国沿海的船舶,开航前应重点关注中国沿海渔场分布,加强航次避碰风险分析评估,科学制定航次计划。涉及渔船密集水域的,要时刻谨记:安全第一、宁可绕行、不要冒险!如必须进入渔船密集水域,应尽可能了解渔船捕鱼作业的方式及对捕鱼号灯及网具的识别方法等,掌握渔船捕鱼的交通流向,提前制定避让方案,找出最佳穿越航线。

unnecessary risks. In situations where entry into waters with high concentrations of fishing vessels is unavoidable, proper identification of fishing vessels, their lights, shapes, and nets, as well as their ongoing fishing operations, is highly recommended. Developing a collision avoidance plan in advance to safely pass clear of all fishing vessels and their nets is strongly advised. Prior to voyages bound for Chinese ports or transiting through coastal waters of China, special attention should be paid to the spatial distribution of fishing grounds in these areasbefore departure. It is essential to conduct a thorough collision risk assessment and carefully make voyage plans. Beware of the clusters of fishing vessels and prioritize safety above all, opting to avoid such clusters rather than taking

(一)进入渔船密集区水域之前。

1.1 Prior to entering areas with high concentrations of fishing vessels.

1.召开航行安全会议,确保驾驶台所有航行值班人员知晓渔船作业特点、渔船密集水域航行安全注意事项,进一步评估碰撞风险、优化避让方案、通报情况,并督促船员遵照执行。

in areas with high concentrations of fishing vessels, comprehensive collision risk assessment, optimization of collision avoidance plans, information reporting and sharing, as well as emphasizing the importance of crew members adhering to these guidelines. 1.1.1 A navigation safety meeting should be organized to ensure that all bridge watch-keeping personnel are well-informed about the characteristics of fishing operations, safety precautions for navigating

2.对雷达、电子海图、船舶自动识别系统、航行数据记录仪、甚高频无线电话,以及航行灯、白昼信号灯和其他声响信号设备进行检查和测试,确保正常可用。

1.1.2 Thoroughly inspect and test navigational aids and communication equipment, including radar, ECDIS/ECS, AIS, VDR, VHF, navigation lights, Aldis light, and other sound-signaling appliances, to ensure that they are all in good working condition.

3.检查“四机一炉”,确保工作状况良好。备妥主机,以便随时用车。对手操舵(随动、非随动)、自动舵和应急操舵等操舵方式进行测试,确保操舵系统工作正常,以便随时紧急操纵避碰。

1.1.3. Conduct a thorough examination of the main engine, auxiliary engine, steering gear, windlass, and boilers to ensure that they are all in optimal working condition. Ensure that the main engine is prepared for immediate maneuvering. Test the manual (Follow-up, Non-Follow up), auto, and emergency steering to verify that the steering system is in good working order, ready to facilitate emergency collision avoidance actions if required.

4.合理安排值班,任何时候驾驶台都应保持至少两名航行值班人员。

1.1.4 Ensure appropriate bridge watchkeepinglevel, with a minimum of two watchstanders consistently on the bridge to fulfill their duties and responsibilities.

(二)经过或临近渔船密集区水域期间。

to areas with high concentrations of fishing vessels. 1.2 Navigating in or close

1.驾驶台航行值班人员应使用视觉、听觉以及适合当时环境和情况的一切可用手段保持正规瞭望,全面掌握本船周边水域其他船舶的航行态势,以便对局面和碰撞危险作出充分的估计。

1.2.1 Bridge watchstanders should at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions, comprehensively collect the navigation situation of other vessels in the vicinity, so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and of the risk of collision.

2.进入渔船密集区域航行时应将自动舵调整为手操舵。若当时环境许可,尽可能保持1海里以上距离通过,并保持戒备,防止渔船因为护网等原因突然加速、停船、掉头等造成紧迫局面。

when entering areas with high concentrations of fishing vessels. Clearing distance of at least 1 nm should be maintained if the circumstances of the case admit. Maintain a high level of vigilance and strive to avoid close-quarters situations arising from sudden speed changes, stops and course alterations by fishing vessels to protect their nets. 1.2.2 The auto steering should be changed to manual

3.值班驾驶员根据周围渔船密集程度和航行值班强度调整值班等级,必要时应立即通知船长上驾驶台。

workload, and if necessary, promptly call master to the bridge.  1.2.3 Officer of the watch should adapt the level of watch-keeping based on the density of fishing vessels and 

4.船长要针对夜间渔区航行的特殊戒备要求,制定和签发夜航命令。

navigating through fishing grounds during nighttime. 1.2.4 Master should issue night orders based on the necessary safety precautions while

(三)应特别注意的事项。

1.3 Matters requiring special attention.

1.每年伏季休渔结束后,是中国沿海渔船活动密度最高时段。伏季休渔期需查阅中华人民共和国农业农村部最新规定。

the summer fishing ban of the People’s Republic of Chinafor detailed information on the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs is lifted, the density of fishing vessels will normally increase to the highest. Please refer to the latest circulars issued by ban 1.3.1 When the summer fishing.

2.夜间23时至次日凌晨4时是商渔船碰撞事故高发时段。

1.3.2 Most collisions between merchant vessels and fishing vessels occur between 2300 and 0400.

3.部分夜间锚泊渔船可能存在未按要求值班、显示号灯和开启船舶自动识别系统的情况。

at night may not arrange proper watch-keeping or display proper lights or have turned on the AIS device as required. 1.3.3 Some fishing vessels anchoring

4.渔网网位仪可能对船舶自动识别系统、雷达和电子海图显示系统存在干扰。

1.3.4 AIS transmitters onfishing nets or fishing marks may interfere with AIS, radar, ECDIS on merchant ships.

5.部分木质渔船的雷达回波较弱,大风浪天气情况下可能无法根据雷达回波辨识目标。

1.3.5 The radar echoes of some wooden fishing vessels are relatively weak, and could be difficult to be detected by Radar in bad weather.

6.驾驶人员交接班时要说明周边水域商船与渔船动向等航行安全风险点。正在进行避让的,要完成避让行动并驶过让清后再予交接。

1.3.6 When handing over the watch, the traffic conditions of nearby merchant and fishing vessels and other navigation safety risks should be covered. Handover can only proceed after the on-going avoiding action is completed.

二、避让行动

2. Action to Avoid Collision

(一)坚持“早、大、宽、清”。

2.1 Actions to avoid collision shall be taken in ample time, be substantial, at safe distance, and be finally past and clear.

(二)构成碰撞危险时,及早通过VHF16频道呼叫渔船。若数次尝试呼叫无应答,应主动采取避让行动,同时采用汽笛、灯光等其他视听方式进行警告。

via VHF CH 16 as early as possible. If there is no response after several attempts, avoiding actions should be taken proactively, and use other sound and light signals to warn the fishing vessels. 2.2 When there is a risk of collision with fishing vessels, the latter should be called 

(三)发现需紧急避让的渔船,可用白昼信号灯闪烁至少5次,和/或用至少5短声连续声号引起渔船注意。紧急避让时,除用舵避让外,应同时考虑主机协调,减速避让。

emergency action is needed to avoid a fishing vessel, at least 5 short and rapid flashes by Aldis light and / or at least 5 short and rapid blasts on the whistle can be used to attract the attention of the fishing vessel. In an emergency collision avoidance situation, in addition to a course alteration, reducing speed or stopping engine should be considered. 2.3 While

(四)值班驾驶员在避让渔船的同时,也要重点识别和关注其他商船的动态,以免与其构成碰撞危险,尤其是处在众多渔船中的商船。

2.4 Special attention should also be paid to the movements of other merchant vessels when taking action to avoid fishing vessels, so as not to develop risk of collision with other merchant vessels, especially when they are navigating amidst a large number of fishing vessels.

(五)能见度不良情况下,应按规定鸣放声号,必要时加派人员瞭头。

2.5 In or near an area of restricted visibility, sound signals should be used as required, and lookout(s) should be posted at bow if necessary.

(六)大风浪天气情况下,应降低航速、加强瞭望,严防渔船在视觉、雷达盲区内难于发现。

2.6 In adverse weather, speed should be adjusted and lookout be enhanced, as fishing vessels located in the visual and radar blind sectors can be difficult to be identified.

(七)特别注意事项。

2.7 Matters requiring special attention.

1.语言沟通时要充分考虑口音、语言表达等方面的局限性,确保双方互相清楚对方意图。

engaging in verbal communication, it is important to consider potential communication barriers such as accents and language expressions. This consideration ensures that both parties involved have a clear understanding of each other's intentions. 2.7.1 While

2.若观测到渔船航速在3节左右时,往往该渔船正在捕鱼作业中,操作能力受限,需采取行动主动避让。

accordingly. action should be taken 2.7.2 If it is observed that the speed of fishing vessels is at around 3 knots, they are often engaged in fishing operation with restricted maneuvrability.Proactive avoiding

3.商船与渔船即使发生轻微擦碰也可能造成渔船受损甚至倾覆,而商船上的人员却不易察觉。当近距离驶过渔船时,应仔细观察,确保未发生擦碰或浪损。

Close attention should be paid to ensure that no collision, wave damage or vessel suction occurs when passing a fishing vessel at close range. 2.7.3 Even a slight collision or contact between a merchant vessel and a fishing vessel may cause damage or even capsizing of the fishing vessel. But it is not always easy for watchstanders on merchant vessels to notice the incident. 

4.渔船与商船特别临近时,出于护网或传统习俗的原因,部分渔船可能会突然做出改向、加速、抢船头等异常举动。如遇渔船抢船头情况,很可能是本船航行的前方有该渔船的渔网。

2.7.4 When fishing vessels come into close proximity with merchant vessels, they may exhibit unusual behaviors such as abrupt speed changes, course alterations, or attempting to cross ahead of merchant vessels. These actions are often driven by fighting vessels’ desire to protect their nets or adhere to traditional customs. It is important for merchant vessels to be aware of these potential maneuvers and take appropriate measures to ensure the safety of both vessels involved.

5.受到渔船作业灯光及网位仪干扰,驾驶员容易忽视渔船作业密集区内的其他商船。

2.7.5 In areas where fishing vessels are densely concentrated, officers of merchant vessels may experience challenges in detecting other merchant vessels. This difficulty arises from the interference caused by the lights present on fishing vessels and AIS transmitters attached to their nets.

三、应急救助

3. Emergency Rescue

(一)在碰撞不可避免时,应尽可能降低船速且避免本船船首与渔船侧面撞击。

3.1 In situations where a collision becomes unavoidable, it is crucial to reduce ship's speed as much as possible. Additionally, efforts should be made to avoid a collision between the bow of merchant vessel and the side of the fishing vessel.

(二)发生碰撞事故后,应立即停船,将人命救助置于首位,全力实施救助。全部遇险人员脱险前,在不严重危及自身安全的情况下,严禁放弃搜救擅自驶离现场。

3.2 Following a collision, the vessel should be brought to an immediate stop. The primary focus should be on prioritizing life-saving measures and making every possible effort to rescue those in distress. It is imperative not to cease search and rescue operations or leave the scene without permission until all at risk have been safely removed from danger. This should be adhered to unless the safety of own vessel is severely compromised.

(三)发生碰撞事故后,通过一切有效途径,立即向就近的海事管理机构报告,报告内容应包含事故发生位置、遇险船舶名称、人员伤亡情况、船舶受损情况、天气海况、救助需求等。同时,通告周围船舶,请求参与救助。

3.3 Following a collision, it is essential to promptly report the incident to the nearest competent maritime authority using all available means of communication. The report should include vital information such as the accident's location, the name of the distressed vessel, details about casualties and damages, prevailing weather and sea conditions, and any specific rescue requirements. Additionally, nearby vessels should be immediately notified to aid in the rescue efforts.

每位参加航行值班人员均应熟知上述内容。

All crew members responsible for navigation watch-keeping should possess a thorough understanding of the above guidance.